War in the Middle East. The evolution of the conflict between Israel and Hamas up to the minute

As Israeli forces tighten their grip on Gaza and destroy Hamas power centers and civilian infrastructure, the United States, the European Union, the United Nations and Arab states have already begun taking positions on the territory’s post-conflict governance.

According to data from local authorities in the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip, around 45% of all homes in the enclave have already been destroyed or severely damaged. Here are some essential points about post-conflict situations defended by various parties:UN in Gaza The security component was rejected by Guterres

On November 20, United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres ruled out that Gaza would become a “UN protectorate” after the war, instead advocating a “transition” involving multiple actors, including the United States and Arab states.

“It is important to turn this tragedy into an opportunity, and for this to be possible we must move decisively and irreversibly towards a two-state solution after the war,” Antonio Guterres told reporters at UN headquarters. .

He added that this would require “a strengthened Palestinian Authority to take responsibility for Gaza”, but it “cannot go into Gaza with Israeli tanks”, so “the international community should consider a transition period”.

“I don’t think putting UN security in Gaza is a solution. I think we need a multilateral approach, where different countries, different institutions cooperate,” Guterres said.

Israel wants to control Gaza after the conflict

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has vowed that Israel will continue to control Gaza after the conflict with the Islamist group Hamas, while guaranteeing that it will not allow international powers to participate in a possible deal.

Netanyahu has been shaping his speech in recent days, in which he has said in a series of interviews that Israel will assume “security responsibility” over the Gaza Strip “indefinitely” but has no intention of reoccupying the territory.

Despite America’s apparent opposition to the situation, the Israeli prime minister said in another statement that he wanted “something else” to replace the Palestinian Authority (PA), led by Mahmoud Abbas, which rules the Gaza Strip after the war. Working to “destroy” the Islamist group Hamas.

“The power cannot remain under the leadership of one person for more than 30 days after the massacre [de 07 de outubro], has not yet condemned him (…). Something else is needed there. But, in any case, our security control must be there,” Netanyahu said, stressing that “we need a total security control with the possibility of entering Israel at any time to eliminate terrorists who may re-emerge.”

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Israel’s national security minister, Itamar Ben Ghir, who is more far-right than Netanyahu, argues that the PA “must be treated the same way” as Hamas because the concept of Palestine has failed in Gaza and Judea. Samaria (biblical name of West Bank used by Israelite authorities to refer to territory) .

“We must confront Hamas and the PA, which has a vision similar to Hamas and whose leaders sympathize with the massacres carried out by Hamas. [nos ataques de 07 de outubro]We are doing it the same way in Gaza,” he said.

Ben Zivir said his description of ANP leader Mahmoud Abbas as a “Holocaust denier” was “illegal”. “Regulation will blow up in our faces, as happened in Gaza. It’s time to act,” he said.

On Monday, far-right Israeli Finance Minister Bezalel Smodrich said Israel must “dismantle the regime” in Gaza.

Another member of Netanyahu’s government, Information Minister Gila Kamliel, touched on the idea of ​​the disappearance of Palestinians from the region, saying the international community should encourage voluntary resettlement of Palestinians outside the Gaza Strip. In other countries.

“Instead of sending money to rebuild Gaza or the failed UNRWA [a agência das Nações Unidas para os refugiados palestinianos]”The international community can help fund resettlement and help Gazans build new lives in their new host countries,” Gamliel said in an article published in the Jerusalem Post.

A member of the Likud, the Netanyahu-led party, Gamlil defends this solution because he sees “all else as having failed,” namely withdrawing settlements from the Gaza Strip and “building high walls in hopes of keeping the Hamas monsters out.” Outside of Israel”.

“This would be a win-win situation: for the citizens of Gaza who want a better life, and for Israel after this terrible tragedy,” the minister said.

The Palestinian Authority wants to continue to rule

In a speech marking the 35th anniversary of Palestine’s declaration of independence, PA President Mahmoud Abbas passionately accused Israel of waging a conflict against the Palestinians’ existence, highlighting “an open war of barbaric aggression and genocide against the people of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including Jerusalem, the Palestinian eternal capital.”

The PA presidential headquarters is in Ramallah in the occupied West Bank, geographically separated from the Gaza Strip by Israeli territory. Hamas has controlled the Gaza Strip since 2007.

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Abbas, 88, said Palestine was a land where the Palestinian people had “lived for more than 6,000 years” and that it was shameful to have those who supported the Israeli occupation and gave it political and military cover.

“[A Faixa de Gaza] It has been and always will be an integral part of the territory of the State of Palestine. While questions arise as to who will control Gaza if Israel defeats Hamas, this is an integral part of our national responsibilities that we cannot abdicate.

Abbas recalled the Declaration of Independence as a continuation of the historic struggle of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). “The people have decided that the PLO will be their sole legitimate representative, the bearer of their national standard and the guardian of the dream of freedom, return and statehood,” he said.

Iran wants to keep Hamas in power in Gaza

Iran’s president, Ebrahim Raisi, is demanding a “firm decision” from Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries to support the Palestinians and condemning Israel’s actions in the Gaza Strip, reaffirming support for Hamas’s authority.

An ally of Iran’s Hamas and the Lebanese Shiite group Hezbollah, Israeli forces exchange near-daily attacks along the Lebanese border.

On the 17th of this month, the head of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard’s Quds Force vowed that Tehran and other members of the “axis of resistance” would prevent Israel from achieving its objectives in Gaza, including the elimination of Hamas.

The European Union and the United States protect two states

According to the heads of the European Commission, Ursula van der Leyen, and Egypt, the US head of state, Abdelfattah al-Sisi, a two-state solution is “more necessary than ever,” with Joe Biden arguing that Gaza and the West Bank should remain in PA hands, but that Israel should keep Hamas in the Gaza Strip. Only after defeating.

A two-state solution is the only way to ensure the long-term security of both the Israeli people and the Palestinian people. While it may seem like a long shot now, this crisis is more necessary than ever,” Biden said in an opinion piece published in The Washington Post on the 18th of this month.

According to Biden, achieving a two-state solution requires the commitment of Israelis and Palestinians, as well as the United States and its allies, to live side by side with equal conditions of “freedom and dignity.”

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The Democratic Party leader again distanced himself from Netanyahu’s plan, which raised the possibility of seizing control of the Gaza Strip indefinitely.

According to Biden, there should be no “forced displacement” of Palestinians from Gaza or “re-occupation, siege, blockade or reduction of territory by Israel”.

According to the White House, Gaza and the West Bank “must be brought together under a single governmental structure, ultimately under a revitalized PNA.”

In the same tone, the High Representative for European Diplomacy, Joseph Borrell, said that for a two-state solution to be real, it is necessary to clarify the insurmountable red lines: no reoccupation or coercion of the Palestinian territories. Displacement of the Palestinian People.

For Borel, there are three Palestinian territories: the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. “There is Palestinian territory. So there will be no reduction in the territory of Gaza,” he said in his speech.

Faced with this situation, Borrell pointed out that “Gaza can no longer be controlled by Hamas” and that the ANP is the “only” entity that can do so.

Arab countries are suspicious of the Palestinian Authority

According to the columnist The Washington Post Ishan Tharoor, Israel or its Arab neighbors have no interest in repeating previous cycles of conflict, destruction and reconstruction.

“At this point, many in Israel are not concerned about what comes next, given the widespread desire to neutralize Hamas over innocent Israeli citizens. Israeli right-wing politicians, including ministers in Netanyahu’s cabinet, want to impose an asymmetric status quo. At a high cost to the population of Gaza,” he added. .

And these third-country donors also face difficult problems, Tharoor said, quoting The Economist’s Greg Carlstrom: “Arab rulers don’t want to clean up Israel’s ‘mess’ and help police their Arab compatriots.”

“But they don’t want to see Israel reoccupy the area, and at least in private conversations, they agree that the PA is too weak to regain full control of Gaza. If none of these options are realistic or desirable, we don’t want to. We know what will happen,” said one in Bahrain. He announced on the sidelines of the regional conference.

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